The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh
W.M. Flinders Petrie, 1883
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    Contents

    Section | Chapter | Page number

             Introduction
    1. Methods employed xiii
    2. Scope of the present work xiv
    3. Use of expressions xv
    Ch 1. Objects and means.
    4. Need of fresh measurements 1
    5. Outline of work demanded 3
    6. Stay at Gizeh 6
    7. Assistance obtained 7
    Ch. 2 Instruments.
    8. List of instruments 10
    9. Details of lineal instruments 11
  10. Details of angular instruments 15
    Ch 3. Methods of measurement.
  11. Lineal measures 22
  12. Angular measures 23
    Ch 4. Excavations.
  13. Inside Great Pyramid 27
  14. Casing, &c; of Great Pyramid 29
  15. Second Pyramid, casing, &c. 30
  16. Third Pyramid, casing, &c. 31
  17. Workmen 32
    Ch 5. Co-ordinates.
  18. Station marks 34
  19. Table of co-ordinates 34
    Ch 6. Outside of Great Pyramid.
  20. Relation of sockets to casing 37
  21. Length of sides of casing 39
  22. Levels and positions of sockets 40
  23. Levels up the Pyramid 41
  24. Angle of the Pyramid 42
  25. Form of top of the Pyramid 43
  26. Casing of the Pyramid 43
  27. Pavement of the Pyramid 44
  28. Basalt pavement 46
  29. Rock trenches 47
  30. Trial passages 50
  31. Connection of inside and outside 51
  32. Original position of entrance 51
  33. Mouths of air channels 52
  34. Blocks above entrance 53
    Ch 7. Inside of Great Pyramid.
  35. Entrance passage, length 55
  36. Entrance passage, azimuth and angle 58
  37. Subterranean chamber, &c 59
  38. Ascending passage, length 61
  39. Ascending passage, azimuth and angle 64
  40. Passage to Queen's Chamber 65
  41. Queen's Chamber, plan 66
  42. Queen's Chamber, height 67
  43. Queen's Chamber, niche 69
  44. Queen's Chamber, channels 70
  45. Gallery, length and angles 71
  46. Gallery, roof and walls 72
  47. Antechamber and passages 75
  48. Antechamber dimensions 76
  49. Antechamber, details of walls 77
  50. Antechamber granite leaf 78
  51. King's Chamber, walls 79
  52. King's Chamber, plan 80
  53. King's Chamber, roof 81
  54. King's Chamber, floor 82
  55. King's Chamber, working 82
  56. King's Chamber, channels 83
  57. Coffer, character 84
  58. Coffer, position 84
  59. Coffer, offsets to surfaces 85
  60. Coffer, calipering 89
  61. Coffer, volumes 90
  62. Chambers of construction 91
  63. Chambers of construction, details 92
  64. Summary of interior positions 95
    Ch 8. Outside of Second Pyramid.
  65. Relation of rock to casing 96
  66. Length of sides of casing 97
  67. Angle of Pyramid, and height 97
  68. Courses of the Pyramid 98
  69. Pavement 99
  70. Levelled site 99
  71. Peribolus walls 100
  72. Barracks of workmen 101
    Ch 9. Inside of Second Pyramid.
  73. Entrance passage 104
  74. Horizontal passage 104
  75. Great chamber 105
  76. Coffer, character 106
  77. Coffer dimensions 107
  78. Lower chamber, and passage 108
    Ch 10. Outside of Third Pyramid.
  79. Nature of the casing 110
  80. Length of the sides 111
  81. Angle and height of Pyramid 112
  82. Courses 112
  83. Peribolus walls and temple 114
    Ch 11. Inside of Third Pyramid.
  84. Entrance passage 117
  85. First chamber 117
  86. Second chamber 118
  87. Granite chamber 118
  88. Loculus chamber 119
  89. Original entrance passage 120
    Ch 12. Lesser Pyramids of Gizeh.
  90. Northern small Pyramid 121
  91. Middle small Pyramid 123
    Ch 13. Positions and orientation of the Pyramids.
  92. Relative positions of Pyramids 125
  93. Orientation of large Pyramids 125
  94. Change of earth's axis 126
    Ch 14. The granite Temple, &c.
  95. Position of granite Temple 128
  96. Description of Temple 129
  97. Workmanship of Temple 132
  98. Original appearance of Temple 133
  99. Date of Temple 133
100. Constructions near Great Pyramid 134
101. Basalt and diorite casings 135
102. Diorite at Gizeh 136
    Ch 15. Tombs of Gizeh.
103. Angles of mastabas 138
104. Campbell's tomb 138
    Ch 16. Notes on other Pyramids.
105. Abu Roash, Pyramid of men ... ra 140
106. Sakkara, Pyramid of Pepi 142
107. Dahshur, Great Pyramid 144
108. Dahshur, South Pyramid 144
109. Dahshur, South Pyramid door 145
110. Mastaba Pyramids, Sakkara & Medum 146
    Ch 17. Historical notes.
111. Climate of early times 149
112. Men ... ra of Abu Roash 151
113. Khufu and Khnumu–Khufu 152
114. Ratatef 152
115. Khafra 153
116. Menkaura, and the Third Pyramid 153
117. Brick Pyramids 155
118. Petukhanu's tablet of Khufu 156
119. Destruction of buildings 157
120. Accuracy of Greek historians 159
    Ch 18. Architectural ideas of the Pyramid builders.
121. Angles of the Pyramids 162
122. The accretion theory of building 163
123. Application of it to the large Pyramids 165
124. Inapplicability of the theory 165
125. Plugging of the Pyramid passages 166
126. Doors of the Pyramids 167
127. Relative workmanship of Pyramids 169
128. Use of plaster 171
    Ch 19. Mechanical methods of the Pyramid builders.
129. Nature of tools employed on hard stone 173
130. Examples of sawing 174
131. Examples of tubular drilling 175
132. Examples of turning 176
133. Rate of working 177
134. Tools not actually found 177
135. References on other details 177
    Ch 20. Values of the cubit and digit.
136. The cubit in the Great Pyramid 178
137. The cubit in other buildings 179
138. Divisions of lists in the tombs 179
139. Decimal division of cubit 180
140. Values of the digit 180
141. Comparison with previous results 181
    Ch 21. Theories compared with facts.
142. The comparisons based on the facts 182
143. The Great Pyramid base 182
144. The Great Pyramid height 183
145. The Great Pyramid angle 184
146. The Great Pyramid courses 184
147. Rock trenches by Great Pyramid 185
148. Positions of the chambers 186
149. Lengths of the passages 187
150. Dimensions of the passages 189
151. Angles of the passages 190
152. Subterranean chamber 191
153. Queen's Chamber 191
154. Antechamber 193
155. King's Chamber 194
156. Coffer 195
157. Synopsis of Great Pyramid theories 198
158. The Tombic theory 200
159. Second Pyramid, outside 201
160. Second Pyramid, inside 202
161. Second Pyramid, coffer 203
162. Third Pyramid 204
163. Comparison of previous surveys 205
    Ch 22. History of the Great Pyramid, and its design.
164. Nature of the site 208
165. Source of the stone 209
166. Organisation of the labour 210
167. Preparation of the site 211
168. Planning of the courses 212
169. Raising the stones 212
170. Tools and chips 212
171. Deterioration of the work 213
172. Plans altered 214
173. Closing of the Pyramid 215
174. A second coffer 216
175. Violation of the Pyramid 217
176. Inscriptions on the Pyramid 217
177. Destruction of the Pyramid 219
178. Summary of probable theories 220
       Appendices
       On the arrangement of a triangulation
179. Nature of survey of short distances 223
180. Distribution of the observations 223
181. Order of observations 224
       The rejection of discordant observations
182. Continual and occasional errors 226
183. Discrimination of occasional errors 227
184. Weighting observations by their divergence 228
185. Application of the law of distribution 228
186. Practical elimination of occasional errors 230
187. Probable error, a factor, not a term 231
188. Plus and minus errors always possible 232
189. Secondary probable errors 233
190. Applicability of approx formulae 235
191. Testing the normal distribution 236
       Graphic reduction of triangulation
192. The need of a graphic method 238
193. Old and new methods of graphic reduction 239
194. The practice of graphic reduction 239
195. Delineation of the traces 241
196. Accuracy in the present survey 241
197. Applicability of graphic reduction 243

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plate 12.
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plate 16.

 

Plan of triangulation
Basalt pavement and rock cuttings
Ends of trenches
Trial passages
Walls and barracks around 2nd Pyramid
Walls of Third Pyramid
Plan of granite temple of Khafra
Accretion theory
Courses of the Great Pyramid
Section of Great Pyramid passages
Relative position of the socket-edges
Air channels, casing, entrance
Casing, bosses, wainscot
Walls of the King's Chamber
Early Egyptian stone cutting
Instruments employed
Traces of observations


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